Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
Strengthening Capacity to Manage Ecosystems Sustainably for Human Well-Being

Ecosystems & Human Well-Being: Volume 3

Policy Responses

With the knowledge of possible outcomes, what kind of actions should we take? The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment scored more than 70 response options for ecosystem services, biodiversity, and drivers such as climate change and nutrient loading. This third volume in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment series presents policy options, analyzing the track record of past policies and the potential of new ones.

The challenge of reversing the degradation of ecosystems while meeting increasing demands for their services can be met only with significant policy and institutional changes. However, a difficult set of obstacles stand in the way of those changes. Policy-makers must keep in mind that there are both trade-offs and synergies between human well-being, ecosystems, and ecosystem services, and that decisions regarding these tradeoffs are difficult and often contentious. The Responses volume ultimately establishes policy options that have the greatest chance to overcome the obstacles and generate positive outcomes. It will serve as an invaluable guide to the creation of stronger policy frameworks for the future.

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Contents, Foreword, Preface [pdf, 828 KB]

01. MA Conceptual Framework [pdf, 425 KB]

02. Typology of Responses [pdf, 394 KB]

03. Assessing Responses [pdf, 346 KB]

04. Recognizing Uncertainties in Evaluating Responses [pdf, 292 KB]

05. Biodiversity [pdf, 703 KB]

06. Food and Cultivated Ecosystems [pdf, 911 KB]

07. Water [pdf, 723 KB]

08. Wood, Fuel-wood and Non Wood Forest Products [pdf, 420 KB]

09. Nutrient Management [pdf, 487 KB]

10. Waste Management, Processing and Detoxification [pdf, 585 KB]

11. Flood and Storm Control [pdf, 603 KB]

12. Ecosystems and Vector Borne Disease Control [pdf, 433 KB]

13. Responses to Climate Change [pdf, 453 KB]

14. Cultural Services [pdf, 289 KB]

15. Integrated Responses [pdf, 1015 KB]

16. Consequences and Options for Human Health [pdf, 625 KB]

17. Consequences of Responses for Poverty Reduction, Ecosystem Services and Human Well-being [pdf, 819 KB]

18. Choosing Responses [pdf, 291 KB]

19. Implications for Achieving the MDGs [pdf, 526 KB]

Appendices [pdf, 1054 KB]