Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
Strengthening Capacity to Manage Ecosystems Sustainably for Human Well-Being

Ecosystems & Human Well-Being: Volume 4

Multiscale Assessments

One of the major innovations of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment is the incorporation of local and regional assessments—33 in all—in a global portrait of the planet’s health. It is the first global assessment of ecosystems to include not only a diversity of ecosystems, but to draw on a wide range of cultural orientations and intellectual traditions, including those of indigenous peoples.

The Sub-global Assessments Working Group integrated information from multiple sources and found that biophysical factors such as land-use change, climate change and variability, pollution, and invasive species have a significant effect on human well-being across cultures. For example, in places where there are no other social safety nets, diminished human well-being tends to increase immediate dependence on ecosystem services, which can damage the capacity of those local ecosystems, which in turn appears to increase the probability of natural disaster or conflict.

Representing the baseline and framework for ongoing assessments of ecosystems and human well-being on a variety of scales around the world, Multiscale Assessments provides students, researchers, and policy-makers with the most comprehensive methodology for assessing ecosystems at local, national, and regional scales.

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Contents, Foreword, Preface [pdf, 1212 KB]

01. MA Conceptual Framework [pdf, 431 KB]

02. Overview [pdf, 196 KB]

03. Ecosystem Services and Human Well-being [pdf, 258 KB]

04. Multi-Scale Approach [pdf, 728 KB]

05. Multiple Knowledge Systems [pdf, 437 KB]

06. Assessment Process [pdf, 261 KB]

07. Drivers of Ecosystem Change [pdf, 1327 KB]

08. Condition and Trends [pdf, 1181 KB]

09. Responses [pdf, 472 KB]

10. Scenarios [pdf, 2310 KB]

11. Community Assessments [pdf, 451 KB]

12. Reflections and Lessons Learned [pdf, 158 KB]

Appendices [pdf, 7571 KB]