Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
Strengthening Capacity to Manage Ecosystems Sustainably for Human Well-Being

The Responses Assessment

The Response Options Working Group assessed the effectiveness of various types of response options, both historical and current, examining the strengths and weaknesses of various response options that have been used to manage ecosystem services. Their report also identifies some promising opportunities for improving human well-being while conserving ecosystems.

The Responses Working Group determined that an effective set of responses to ensure the sustainable management of ecosystems requires substantial changes in institutions and governance, economic policies and incentives, social and behavior factors, technology, and knowledge. Prompt and effective actions in these areas, as described in the report, could substantially lessen the severity of ecosystem problems in the next several decades.


  • Kanchan Chopra, Institute of Economic Growth, India
  • Rik Leemans, Wageningen University, The Netherlands

Administrative and Technical Support:

Working Group Meeting Schedule

  • Meeting #1: May 2002, Delhi India
  • Meeting #2: May  2003, Germany