Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
Strengthening Capacity to Manage Ecosystems Sustainably for Human Well-Being

Synthesis Reports

On this page: General | Biodiversity | Desertification | Business & Industry | Wetlands & Water | Health

Important corrections

The MA synthesis reports will be from 30 to 200 printed pages each, in full color, and will be published by the MA and WRI, except where noted.

Ecosystems and Human Well-being: General Synthesis

This report presents a synthesis and integration of the findings of the four MA Working Groups along with more detailed findings for selected ecosystem services concerning condition and trends and scenarios, and response options. Order now from Island Press

Ecosystems & Human Well-being: Synthesis [pdf, 15646 KB]

Ecosystems & Human Well-being: Synthesis (Arabic) [pdf, 11934 KB]

Ecosystems & Human Well-being: Synthesis (Chinese) [pdf, 6547 KB]

Ecosystems & Human Well-being: Synthesis (Russian) [pdf, 4971 KB]

Summary for Decision Makers (French) [pdf, 1703 KB]

Summary for Decision Makers (Portuguese) [pdf, 1699 KB]

Summary for Decision Makers (Arabic) [pdf, 262 KB]

Summary for Decision Makers (Spanish) [pdf, 1162 KB]

Popularized Version of Ecosystems & Human Well-being

Popularized Version of Ecosystems & Human Well-being (French)

Popularized Version of Ecosystems & Human Well-being (Spanish)

Ecosystems and Human Well–being: Biodiversity Synthesis

Prepared for the CBD, this report provides an overview of biodiversity across the assessment, organized around a set of 6 questions which were initially posed by the CBD to the MA.

Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Biodiversity Synthesis [pdf, 14063 KB]

Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Biodiversity Synthesis (Arabic) [pdf, 8691 KB]

Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Biodiversity Synthesis (Chinese) [pdf, 6524 KB]

Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Biodiversity Synthesis (Russian) [pdf, 2857 KB]

Biodiversity: Key Messages (Chinese) [pdf, 85 KB]

Biodiversity: Key Messages (French) [pdf, 59 KB]

Biodiversity: Key Messages (Russian) [pdf, 63 KB]

Biodiversity: Key Messages (Arabic) [pdf, 33 KB]

Biodiversity: Key Messages (Spanish) [pdf, 61 KB]

Popularized Version of Biodiversity Synthesis (English)

Popularized Version of Biodiversity Synthesis (French)

Popularized Version of Biodiversity Synthesis (Spanish)

Popularized Version of Biodiversity Synthesis (Dutch)

Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Desertification Synthesis

This report integrates findings of the MA related to current state and future trends of desertification and its impacts on ecosystems and human well-being, and is organized around a set of key information needs identified by the CCD.

Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Desertification Synthesis [pdf, 3150 KB]

Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Desertification Synthesis (Arabic) [pdf, 5319 KB]

Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Desertification Synthesis (Chinese) [pdf, 2217 KB]

Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Desertification Synthesis (French) [pdf, 2117 KB]

Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Desertification Synthesis (Russian) [pdf, 1869 KB]

Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Desertification Synthesis (Spanish) [pdf, 2176 KB]

Popularized Version of Desertification Synthesis

Popularized Version of Desertification Synthesis (French)

Popularized Version of Desertification Synthesis (Spanish)

Ecosystems and Human Well–being: Opportunities and Challenges for Business and Industry

This report synthesizes the key messages of the MA and discusses the implications of MA findings for the business community.

Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Opportunities and Challenges for Business and Industry [pdf, 4534 KB]

Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Opportunities and Challenges for Business and Industry (Perspectives on the Findings of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment) [pdf, 114 KB]

Business & Industry Synthesis (Chinese) [pdf, 13860 KB]

Business & Industry Synthesis (Arabic) [pdf, 6436 KB]

Business & Industry Synthesis (Russian) [pdf, 2448 KB]

Business & Industry Synthesis (Spanish) [pdf, 3537 KB]

Ecosystem Services and Human Well-being: Wetlands and Water Synthesis

This report was written as a guide for the parties to the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, on the MA findings concerning inland, coastal, and near-shore marine wetlands.

Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Wetlands Synthesis [pdf, 7073 KB]

Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Wetlands Synthesis (Arabic) [pdf, 3983 KB]

Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Health Synthesis

The World Health Organization will publish this report, examining the linkages between ecosystems and human health. It The report looks as how ecosystem change and various management decisions affect human health, and considers the role of ecosystems in achieving the Millennium Development Goals with a particular focus on health.

Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Health Synthesis [pdf, 5883 KB]

Ecosystems and Human Health: Some Findings from the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2-page Summary of Health Synthesis [pdf, 68 KB]

Human Health Under Threat from Ecosystem Degradation WHO Media Release [pdf, 35 KB]